JACOB NAZIR (Jacob ben Saul of Lunel; second half of 12th century), scholar and kabbalist in Lunel, S. France. The brother of Asher b. Saul, author of Sefer ha-Minhagot, Jacob was a colleague of abraham b. david (RABaD). Solomon Schechter (JQR 5, 1893, pp. 22–23), on the basis of statements in letters of samuel david luzzatto (Iggerot Shadal (1882), 669), established his identity, in opposition to Zunz, who had thought him identical with Jacob b. Meshullam of Lunel. Jacob Nazir belonged to a group of hermits in Provence who carried on the mystic tradition, devoting themselves wholly to a life of contemplation. Kabbalistic tradition attributes to Jacob and Abraham b. David revelations of the prophet Elijah. Through visions and meditations they arrived at innovations in kabbalistic thought. Some of their interpretations, in which they disagreed on the details of the mystical kavvanot ("meditations") in certain prayers (i.e., to which Sefirah or quality of God should a man direct his thought in prayer?), have survived in several manuscripts (Ms. JTS New York 838 48a; British Museum 755 85b; Oxford 1646). The works that have survived contain kabbalistic terminology developed from sefer ha-bahir , the Heikhalot literature, and a mixture of different traditions. However, there is no proof that Jacob constructed a complete and ordered system. Jacob Nazir was the first to use the term Malkhut ("kingdom") to designate the last revelation of the Sefirot, and as a synonym for the concepts of Kavod ("glory") and Shekhinah ("Divine Presence"). According to G. Scholem this usage was derived from ibn tibbon 's Hebrew translation of the Kuzari, composed in Lunel during that period (1167). One of the first kabbalists to serve as a direct link between Provence and the East, Jacob made a pilgrimage to Palestine, apparently after Saladin's capture of Jerusalem (1187). His circle transmitted traditions which he learned from R. Nehorai of Jerusalem (R. Ezra's commentary on the aggadot, Ms. Vatican 185; see Scholem, Kitvei Yad be-Kabbalah (1930), 202). Later legend of the Spanish kabbalists (c. 1300) linked his visit to the Middle East with maimonides ' imaginary turning to Kabbalah in his old age. There is no trace of mysticism in Jacob's supplements to Rashi's commentary on Job (Ms. Oxford 295) written in 1163 or 1183. A. Jellinek's assumption that Jacob was the author of Massekhet Aẓilut is unfounded (Toledot ha-Filosofyah be-Yisrael (1921), 167). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Scholem, in: Tarbiz, 6 (1935), 339–41; idem, Reshit ha-Kabbalah (1948), 70–98; idem, Ursprung und Anfaenge der Kabbala (1962), 201–6.

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • JACOB NAZIR DE LUNEL — (XIIe s.) De son vrai nom Jacob b. Saül, frère d’Asher ben Saül, auteur d’un ouvrage juridique: Sefer ha minhagot . Le qualificatif nazir indique que Jacob appartenait à un groupe de dévots qui se retiraient des affaires de ce monde pour se… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Jacob ben Abraham Faitusi — (d. July 1812, Algiers) was a Tunisian Jewish scholar. He settled in the later part of his life at Jerusalem, whence he was sent as a collector of alms to Italy and Algeria.Faitusi was the author of Berit Ya aqob (Livorno, 1800), the contents of… …   Wikipedia

  • Jacob Neusner bibliography — This is a list of books by Professor Jacob Neusner as of early 2005. Articles, reviews, etc. are not included here.* A Life of Yohanan ben Zakkai. Leiden, 1962: Brill. Abraham Berliner Prize in Jewish History, Jewish Theological Seminary of… …   Wikipedia

  • FAITUSI, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM — (d. 1812), Jerusalem emissary and talmudist. Faitusi was born in tunis and immigrated to jerusalem around 1800. In 1806 he became an emissary of Jerusalem to tripoli , tunisia , and algeria . He published: Berit Ya akov (Leghorn, 1800), including …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Eliezer ben Jacob II — (Hebrew: אליעזר בן יעקב) was a Tanna of the 2nd century, quoted among R. Akiba s younger disciples who survived the fall of Bethar and the subsequent Hadrianic persecutions, including Judah b. Illai, R. Meïr, Simon b. Yoḥai, Eliezer b. Jose ha… …   Wikipedia

  • MOTAL, ABRAHAM BEN JACOB — (1568–1658), rabbi and dayyan of Salonika. Motal was born in Salonika, where he studied under Samuel Ḥayyun and Solomon ha Kohen, whose works he transcribed. He served first as head of the yeshivah of the Old Lisbon community of the city, and on… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • KABBALAH — This entry is arranged according to the following outline: introduction general notes terms used for kabbalah the historical development of the kabbalah the early beginnings of mysticism and esotericism apocalyptic esotericism and merkabah… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • KABBALE — Le terme kabbala , littéralement « tradition », désignait à l’origine toute tradition doctrinale, même biblique à l’exclusion du Pentateuque, et plus particulièrement la transmission, d’abord orale, ensuite écrite, d’enseignements concernant la… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • JERUSALEM — The entry is arranged according to the following outline: history name protohistory the bronze age david and first temple period second temple period the roman period byzantine jerusalem arab period crusader period mamluk period …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ASHER BEN SAUL — (late 12th and early 13th centuries), one of the sages of Lunel, later of Narbonne. Few biographical details are known about him and until recently many confused him with Asher b. Meshullam of Lunel. Asher was the younger brother of the kabbalist …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”